Location: Mongolia is located in Central Asia, with Russia bordering to the North and China to the South. Border line with Russia is 3485 km. and with China is 4677 km.
Surface area: 1.569.500 square km
Population: 3 million
Growth rate: 1.4%
Population concentration: 1.6 people per square km
Capital city: Ulaanbaatar (1,4 million inhabitants)
Type of Governance: democratically elected parliament
Administrative structure: Central state, divided into 21 Aimags/ Province / which are subdivided into Soums.
Average height: 1.500 m above sea level
Highest elevation: 4.560 m above sea level
Climate: Semi-arid continental, about 250 days of sun per year. In the winter, temperatures reach -28C, and in the summer spike to 25 C. The climate is extremely dry.
Ethnic groups: 85 % of Khalkh Mongol, 7.0% Kazak, and 8 % other
Language: 95 % of the population speaks Mongolian; Russian, English, German, and Korean are also spoken.
Religion: 53 % Buddhist, 3 % Muslim, 4% Christ, 3% Shamanism
Holidays: New Year 1st January, New Lunar Year in February, Naadam-festival July 11-13, Independence Day November 26.
Time zone: +8 GMT
Exports: Cashmere, wool, skins, copper and molybdenum concentrate, fluorspar, coal, gold
Imports: Petroleum products, consumer goods and industrial equipment
National Flag description: Three equally wide, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem (“Soyombo” - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)’
Mongolian brief history
700, OOB. C.: First signs of human activity in present day Mongolia
Circa 200 B.C.: Hunnu Empire established 552 to circa
900 A.D. Syanbu State, Jujian State, Turkic Khaganate, Uighur
900 to 1100: Kidan Empire 1162: Temuujin is bom
1196 to 1205: Temuujin unites Mongol tribes, founds Great Mongolian State and is proclaimed Great Chinggis Khaan 1206: Proclamation of Mongol Empire. Chinggis Khaan starts military campaigns 1207: First attack on Tanguts
1209: Attack on northern China and Kharakhita Empire.
1211: Chinggis Khaan leads invasion of Eastern Turkestan Khanate
1218: Attacks on Horesm Shaah State, Samarkand and Buhara
1221 to 1223: Mongols invade Azerbaijan, Georgia and Crimea
1125 to 1227; Military campaigns in Russia and Bulgaria along the Volga and Kama rivers
1227: Successful second attack on
1227: Chinggis Khaan dies.
1234: Chinggis Khaan’s sons Zuch, Tsagaadai, Ogoidei and Tului divide conquered territories and continue military campaigns.
1235: Mongol capital moved to Kharkhorum
1236 to 1240: Marco Polo arrives in Kharakhorum
1244 to 1252: Chinggis Khaan's grandson Batu conquers Ryasan. Vladimir and Kiev. The Turkish and Iranian Empires are also attacked.
1254: Franciscan monk Wilhelm Dubuque, envoy of French King
Louis IX, arrives in Kharakhorum
1258: Conquered Korea
1260: Kublai becomes Khaan of Mongolia
1380 to 1388: Chinese troops invade Mongolia and sack Kharakhorum
1400 to 1460: Tribal wars
1578: Altan Khaan converts to Buddhism
1639: Zanabazar proclaims head of Buddhism in Mongolia and is
Given the Tibetan name Luvsandambijantsan. He declares Urge
(Now called Ulaanbaatar) as his residence.
1691: Manchu Empire conquers Mongolia
1754 to 1900: Various anti—Manchurian uprisings are suppressed
1911: Independence from China and proclamation of Bogd Gegeen monarchy
1919: China invades Mongolia
1921: With Russian support, Sukhbaatar claims Mongolian independence from China
1924: Bogd Khaan dies
1940: Soviet repression: over 700 temples razed and 30.000 monks killed
1939: Battle at KhalhiinGol River between Soviet-Mongolia and Japanese forces 1991: Soviet Union implodes
1992: New constitution adopted and true independence arrives: